Hi, I'm Maria.
I decided to write this article for those who, like you, need to buy a compost bin to reduce the production of organic waste and needs to produce a biological fertilizer for the garden or the garden.
- A 310 lt composter; which is able to guarantee a concrete reduction in disposal costs
- Effective in the domestic recycling process
Looking for a domestic composer?
Here you will find all the necessary information, from how the domestic compost works, to which composter to buy passing by what to put, what not to put and when to empty it.
It is currently the best tool for managing composting and organic waste.
Would you like to know more? Well, read on.
How does the domestic composter work?
The domestic composter has a very simple operation, it is a container that transforms the waste into natural compost.
Starting from the assumption that organic waste is transformed into organic fertilizer thanks to a natural chemical process, the decomposition of matter takes place by means of some microorganisms.
This process allows living beings in the garden to feed themselves directly or indirectly.
Organic waste when it decomposes becomes natural fertilizers and provides healthy nutrients to the soil, improving its composition, nutrients and characteristics.
So why buy the soil when you can use natural compost?
Now let's see the steps to follow:
1. Suitable place
Make sure to place the compost bin in the suitable place (be careful, not all models can be placed on the balcony or on the floor), you have to make sure that the cumulus area both in a dry and shaded place.
Dry in winter to prevent the compost from getting wet and in the shade to prevent the summer heat from drying out, later we will see why.
Prepare an adequate base with leaves, earth and branches so that the bottom can absorb all the liquids.
Once positioned, the compost bin is ready for use and you can begin to deposit organic waste.
To facilitate decomposition, I also advise you to pour garden soil, so that we introduce those bacteria that will take care of degrading the material.
If you are a beginner you can easily buy an activator ready without running the process.
3. Internal temperature
Initially the internal temperature it is optimal when it oscillates between 45 ° and 55 ° C.
This happens because the microorganisms increase the temperature inside it by activating the decomposition process of the material.
Subsequently, when the initial stage is completed the internal temperature is lowered by several degrees and returns equal to that of the environment.
To ensure that the decomposition takes place correctly, the humidity must remain constant to ensure the correct fermentation of the material. To do this there must be an adequate consumption of oxygen functional to the process.
If the compost turns out to be too wet it rots and generates bad smells.
In this case it is necessary to mix and mix everything by adding biodegradable material (grass, leaves, branches, sawdust, etc.) with a stick or a special aerator to absorb the water.
If the internal material is too dry, the compost is produced more slowly, and in the worst case the production process could even stop.
To solve this problem you need to add water and mix.
It is essential to maintain the right balance between the wettest and the driest ones, always keeping the pile at the right degree of humidity without letting it dry or wetting too much.
Make sure you do not make the compost too compact so as to guarantee the presence of the quantity of oxygen necessary to avoid altering the decomposition procedure.
Although there are holes in the composter, these alone are not enough, you should always be careful and keep the compost soft, airy and compact at the right point.
Add regularly, in addition to kitchen scraps, material that absorbs moisture and mixes the material when necessary.
You have the right compactness when the compost exceeds the punch test.
If by squeezing a bit of material in a fist the compost keeps its shape, without water droplets having formed, it means that the humidity is adequate.
If, on the other hand, sgococoiola or crumbles it should be worked, in this case you have to add waste or wet the heap.
Thanks to the right oxygenation micro-organisms can live and feed.
Always make sure to ensure the right air circulation.
6. Carbon and nitrogen
In the composting process there must be a correct correlation between carbon and nitrogen (C / N ratio).
Carbon allows microorganisms to survive and nitrogen allows their growth and multiplication.
The ideal balance between carbon and nitrogen accelerates the decomposition process.
When there is an excess of carbon, due to the over-abundance of leaves, branches or sawdust the decomposition process slows down dramatically; in this case it is necessary to pour food scraps.
On the other hand, if nitrogen exceeds an excessive quantity of food waste, too much ammonia is produced and bad smells occur.
If this occurs, extend the compost, add leaves, grass or branches; then mix to promote oxygenation.
The appropriate value of the C / N ratio is between 20 and 30.
What to pour into the compost bin?
Be very careful what to pour into the compost bin:
- When you first use it, I advise you to pour mature compost, or you can create a solid base with straw, earth, leaves or branches to facilitate the correct exchange between the compost and the soil.
- The compost must be created in layers, always alternating leftover food with the waste from the garden.
- Always make sure to guarantee a correct carbon / nitrogen ratio and maintain the correct humidity level.
- Mix the contents often using a stick or the special aerator
- Avoid depositing diseased plants that could contaminate the earth, painted wood, paper with ink and cardboard, ruin the compost.
Deposit only biodegradable products.
- You can pour the excrement of your animals, but only if you use a biodegradable litter, never pour synthetic materials.
Also consider the following: excrements are carriers of pathogens that can be transmitted to humans.
Make high temperatures at the heap, at least 60 ° C, at this temperature the heat kills the bacteria and sanitizes the compost.
Otherwise, exclude avoid spilling droppings.
- To improve the composition you can use supplements, lime to reduce acidity, wood ash and bone meal (rich in phosphorus and potassium) to fatten the soil; cornunghia in case it is lacking in nitrogen.
How to choose a compost bin
When you decide to buy a composter weigh your purchase after making a series of evaluations.
Although building a DIY compost bin is not impossible, consider that those that are for sale, and ready to use, save you time.
They have also been designed by professionals to obtain the best possible compost.
So let's see ** how to choose a compost bin **.
Size of the compost bin
The capacity of a composter is expressed in liters, consider and evaluate your choice based on an estimate of your annual waste production.
In addition to scraps of food scraps, garden residues (mainly flowers, grass, leaves and branches) end up in the compost bin.
As the number of your family members increases and the size of the garden increases the size of the compost.
It also considers that the production of compost occurs in three phases:
1. riempimento 2. decomposizione 3. svuotamento
When the composter reaches its maximum capacity, it takes time to transform into quality compost.
If you produce a lot of waste, or you have a very large garden, consider buying more model and don't just buy one.
In doing so, when one is capacious, you can proceed to fill the others and allow the micro-organisms to complete the compost production process.
Once the process is complete you can empty the full compost and then fill it from scratch.
Considering that the average production of a family of 3 people is about 300kg of waste, 90-100kg per person, divide the kg by 2 and get the ideal capacity of your compost.
Each kg produced corresponds to about 1/2 l of density, for an average family a 200 liter compost can be sufficient, net of the garden.
Considering that a garden of 100 square meters produces about 3-400 kg of waste, the capacity must be adjusted accordingly.
In the presence of an extended garden, you need a more capacious compost bin, even of 750 liters, whereas if you have a small garden, a 300 liter compost can be fine.
As the size of the tool varies, the resistance to temperature changes also changes, the larger it is, the stronger it is.
If you decide to opt for a small one, in winter when it is colder or if it even snows, you may need to cover it to prevent the contents from freezing and getting damaged.
Composter in wood, plastic or metal?
When the constitution material changes the characteristics change, it is useless to own the most beautiful compost bin in the world if it then produces a poor compost.
The most widespread on the market are made in metal, wood is plastic.
Each presents pros and cons, let's see them in detail.
- Wood, due to its biodegradable nature, is better suited to the soil but, for the same reason, it rots more quickly and needs wide airways. These spaces favor the exit of the odor that can attract insects and animals.
In the long run, humidity spoils the wood but it is necessary to promote the right production process.
The wooden structures are also inconvenient to move, but they allow to store large quantities of compost.
- Plastic, it is easy to wash (both inside and outside) and once emptied it is very easy and light to move.
It is not very insulating, it heats and cools very easily.
A temperature that is too low blocks the activity of microorganisms, but too high causes bad smells.
In the worst case you can get peat and not compost.
Extremely fragile plastic in winter, when it snows.
- Metal, the most resistant composters are made of metal, compared to previous materials it cannot be eaten by mice and allows a better preservation of the compost.
The metal also stores heat well and promotes the work of microorganisms and you can have a 100% hermetic and insulating closure.
Needs careful maintenance to avoid rust and ruin the compost.
The best wood composters
Compost Wood Composter Kit 100x100x70cm
In my opinion it is the best economic wood composter, it was made with pressure impregnated green pine wood.
It includes two storage sections, one for kitchen and garden waste, the other for ripening composting.
It has important dimensions: 1 meter in height and 70 cm in depth.
In order to get the best results, you don't have to fill it over 70 cm in height to guarantee the ideal environmental conditions for the proliferation of micro-organisms and the killing of parasites.
It is very suitable for managing medium-sized gardens, in fact it produces about 700 liters of compost.
Easy-Load Wooden Compost Bin – Small – 449 Liters
The Easy-Load small has a composting capacity of around 450 liters.
This is my favorite model, at least among the wooden composters, because it is easy to assemble, and you can fill it directly from the wheelbarrow.
It has removable slats that make it easy to fill and collect mature compost from the bottom.
It is produced in England by Primrose, a special arrangement of the staves was planned in the design to favor an optimal air circulation and to combine the production of the compost.
Medium, large and extra-large versions are also available to satisfy greater product needs (up to 897 liters).
Marco Travaglio has dedicated to this model, an article in the Daily Fact hit by the names assigned to the containers, read the article to learn more.
The best plastic composters
Toomax Z651T041 Composter container in plastic 60X60X73, Black
This compost bin Tomax is the best economic plastic composter.
It should be placed directly on the ground, as it is not a background view, it is ideal for small gardens.
I advise you to mount it in an area rich in shade to prevent the sun from ruining the plastic.
Make sure you don't overfill it, it could open up, so I suggest you reinforce its pins, even with simple string or wire.
At this price, however, there is nothing better, it is excellent for those who have little budget to spend.
Art Plast BC380 Bio Composter in plastic, Green
- Manufactured in polypropylene, shockproof material, resistant to cold, weather, oils and solvents
- Simple and quick to assemble, it does not require the use of tools
This Art Plast it has a capacity of 380 liters, it is the best plastic composter for value for money.
Easy to assemble, even if you've never had it, you can install it in minutes.
The only flaw is that it is difficult to move and must be mounted on the point where you intend to place it permanently.
It is produced in Italy, with a very strong and resistant high quality plastic that does not release chemicals into the compost, has some slits to get the right oxygenation of the organic material.
I advise you to place the base in a flat place to avoid overloading the structure.
Mattiussi Ecologia S.p.A. COMPOSTER 310 Liters – Manual aerator and Container for the Organic Included
- A 310 lt composter; which is able to guarantee a concrete reduction in disposal costs
- Effective in the domestic recycling process
This Mattiussi is my favorite plastic model, ideal for small to medium gardens.
The only flaw is that it must be installed directly in the garden, you cannot place it inside the house.
It is assembled in 5 minutes, it is large enough to dispose of 3 people and a medium-small garden.
It does not allow the escape of odors, thanks to a quality plastic, it is resistant and insulating.
Very nice model aesthetically, she carries out her work impeccably.
A grid on the bottom prevents access to the mice and the manual aerator included in the price makes it much easier to use.
The best metal composters
Festnight – Metal garden gardening net square mesh 100 x 100 x 70 cm
I consider it Festnight the best economic metal composter.
Excellent model, smooth, very light, with anti-rust paint and powder gray.
Although the low price is very solid and is ideal for the management of small to medium gardens, it produces up to 700 liters of compost.
In Oster package, 91 x 85 cm, 700 L, expandable
- Composter: very stable – Composter in feuerverzinkten metal profiles. The dimensions: 91 x 91 x 85 cm, Volume 700 liters.
- Simple assembly: the composter is supplied as a slot system. No need for construction tools layout. Just follow the guide and the compost bin is in the NU ready.
This Oster is the best metal composter.
Thanks to a removable handle, it prevents you from straining your back.
It is easy to assemble, just guide the guide.
It is of an important size, almost a cubic meter, it allows you to produce about 700 liters of compost.
Being an extendable model you can enlarge it if necessary.
It is very practical and you can use it quickly and easily.
The technical features allow you to empty it and fill it quickly, in addition a wheel allows you to separate the fresh compost from the fresh and mature one.
Types of compost
Let's start with Legislative Decree n.75 / 2010 which defines 3 types of compost (Compost Soil) (http://www.camera.it/parlam/leggi/deleghe/testi/10075dl.htm) depending on the composition:
- Green Compost Soil (ACV) crop residues, virgin pomace (residues from olive grinding), pruning waste, branches, grass; etc.
- Mixed Composting Soil (ACM), organic waste from separate collection, animal waste, waste from agro-industrial companies, untreated wood and natural textile processing waste.
3.Soil compactor with sludge (ACF), wastewater, mud, etc.
As far as domestic use is concerned, it has different characteristics and uses depending on the maturation:
- Fresh, when 2 – 4 months have passed since the deposit of the material. Excellent fertilizer for the autumn period, it is made up of nourishing substances and you do not have to pour it directly into the roots, it could dry out being unstable.
- Ready, after 5 – 7 months, begins to take stability as biological activity is reduced. I recommend using it to make the garden more fertile before sowing or transplanting.
–Mature, after 10 – 12 months, it has completed the biological transformation and can be poured directly into the roots and seeds without risk.
It has turned into soil in appearance and smell, becoming dark and porous.
It is particularly suitable for fertilizing pots and for re-seeding lawns.
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